Cookies are small text files that the sites visited by users send to their terminals, where they are stored before being re-transmitted to the same sites at the next visit. Cookies of the c.d. “Third parties” are, however, set by a website other than the one the user is visiting. This is because on each site there may be elements (images, maps, sounds, specific links to web pages of other domains, etc.) that reside on servers other than the site visited.
Types of cookies
– Technical cookies.
Technical cookies are those used for the sole purpose of “transmitting a communication over an electronic communications network, or to the strictly necessary extent for the provider of an information society service explicitly requested by the subscriber or user to provide this service “(see Article 122, paragraph 1, of the Code). They are not used for other purposes and are normally installed directly by the owner or operator of the website. They can be divided into navigation or session cookies, which guarantee the normal navigation and use of the website; analytics cookies, similar to technical cookies when used directly by the site operator to collect information, in aggregate form, on the number of users and how they visit the site; functional cookies, which allow the user to navigate according to a series of selected criteria in order to improve the service rendered to the same. For the installation of these cookies, the prior consent of users is not required, while the obligation to provide information pursuant to art. 13 of the Code, that the site manager, if he uses only such devices, will be able to provide in the manner he deems most suitable.
– Profiling cookies.
Profiling cookies are designed to create profiles related to the user and are used in order to send advertising messages in line with the preferences expressed by the same in the context of surfing the net.
Duration of cookies
Some cookies (session cookies) remain active only until the browser is closed or when a logout command is executed. Other cookies “survive” when the browser is closed and are also available in subsequent visits by the user. These cookies are called persistent and their duration is set by the server when they are created. In some cases a deadline is set, in other cases the duration is unlimited.
Most browsers automatically accept cookies, but users can usually change their browser settings to disable this feature. The “Help” section of the toolbar in most browsers explains how to avoid receiving cookies, web beacons and other tracking technologies, how to get notification from the browser of activating these technologies or how to disable them completely. Disabling cookies may limit the possibility of using the related site and prevent users from fully benefiting from the features and services available on the site.